Dr. Manuel questions theory of the origin of the solar system
By Mari Hutchison
Assistant Mananging Editor
of the Missouri Miner
[Reprinted from the October 11, 2000 issue of the Missouri Miner]
"The only reasonable conclusion is that the standard
solar model is like the Emperorís new suit of clothes,
there are so many holes that nothing remains."
Rolla has become the center of controversy. Dr. Oliver Manuel, professor of chemistry at the University of Missouri ó Rolla has a different view of the origin and composition of the solar system. He believes that a large supernova formed the solar system and that the standard solar model (ssm) is wrong. The ssm claims that the sun is made up of mostly of hydrogen. It also states that the sun was formed instantaneously as a perfectly homogenous and thoroughly mixed celestial body. The sunís energy comes from the hydrogen fusion that occurs in its core.
Dr. Manuel has evaluated data and observations from two completely independent and separate sets to disprove the ssm. The first set is an analysis of the material in the planetary system. The system consists of seven abundant elements, which are found in meteorites that were formed at the same time as the system. Iron (Fe), Oxygen (O), Nickel (Ni), Silicon (Si), Sulfur (S), Magnesium (Mg), and Calcium (Ca) are abundant in all of the planets close to the sun and in ordinary meteorites in the system including the sun. "We regard the iron cores of the inner planets, the iron meteorites, and the core of the sun as likely condensation products from the supernova core." Dr. Manuel said in a paper published in Science, "Strange Xenon, Extinct Superheavy Elements, and the Solar Neutrino Puzzle."
The cores of the inner planets and more than likely the iron meteorites formed first in the central iron rich region near the sun. The inner part of the early solar system near the sun consisted mainly of heavier elements such as Fe, Ni, and S, while the outer regions consisted mainly of lighter elements like Hydrogen (H), Helium (He), and Carbon (C). "Meteorites and planets condensed from fresh supernova debris that was chemically and istopically heterogeneous: The atomic weight of xenon in the Earth and in Mars is like that in trolite (FeS) of meteorites: The atomic weight of xenon in Jupiter is like that in diamonds (C) of meteorites because a different set of nuclear reactions made xenon atoms in the outer part of the supernova," said Dr. Manuel.
The second set of data that was analyzed was the material coming from the sun. The material coming from the sun shows that there are not enough neutrinos for the H-fusion to be itís primary source of energy. The data also shows that abundances of the lightweight isotopes [mass = L] are enriched within the solar wind relative to abundances of the heavier isotopes [mass = H] of He, Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), and Xenon (Xe) by a factor f, where
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† log f = 4.56 log [H/L]†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (Eq. 1).
While, the solar flares by-pass 3.4 of the nine stages of diffusion and the lightweight isotopes are depleted in the solar flares relative to the heavy isotopes for He, Ne, Mg, and Ar by a factor, f, where
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† log f = -1.7 log [H/L]†††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† (Eq. 2).
Proton capture of N-14 near the surface of the sun has increased the abundance of the heavier Nitrogen isotope, N-15, in the solar wind over geologic time, a few billion years. While the solar flares dredge up Nitrogen from deeper in the sun with less N-15 from this H-fusion reaction.
Each one of these observations and data points reflects a serious "hole" in the ssm theory and together they show why the theory is invalid. "When elemental abundanceís at the sunís surface are corrected for diffusive mass fractionation [Eq. (1)], the most abundant elements in the bulk sun turn out to be Fe, Ni, O, Si, S, Mg, and Ca, the same seven elements that are most abundant in ordinary meteorites. The probability that Eq. (1) would accidentally select these seven trace elements from the solar photosphere, i.e., that the agreement between observations from the two sets of data is meaningless, is less than 2 x 10-33." Dr. Manuel said.
Many astronomers think that Dr. Manuel is attempting to fit this model on other stars but he says differently, "They think they know what is going on in the sun. I know they donít. I donít know about other stars. I only know what I can get my grubby little hands on and take measurements. A lot of astrophysicists think that I am telling them that the sun is a special star, but that isnít true at all. I donít know how other stars are. I canít measure neutrinos coming from other stars. I canít measure elements coming out in their stellar wind and their stellar flares. But I do know for this star, diffusion inside is enriching light elements on the surface."
"The only reasonable conclusion is that the standard solar model is like the emperorís new suit of clothes, there are so many holes that nothing remains. So, my conclusion about the standard solar model is like that of the little boy who exclaimed, "The emperor is stark naked!" said Dr. Manuel. More information about this theory can be found at http://www.umr.edu/~om/ or in his talk at the 31st Annual Mid-America Regional Astrophysics Conference at the Linda Hall Library in Kansas City at 2:00 p.m. on Oct 14, 2000. The lecture is free and open to the public.
†††††††††††††††††††††††††Origin of the Elements†††††††††††††††††††
†††††††††† Conclusion: The birth of the solar system from the debris of a massive supernova that exploded here 5 billion years ago†††††††††